In this experiment you will measure the heat capacity of water using an electrical immersion heater. Throughout this experiment we predict that the change in temperature compared to he amount of heat added to the water will be constant thus making it proportional.
The capacitors suited in the power supply, may have not been functioning properly, or they were functioning poorly, thus the power supply that was directed into our water could have been even more uneven.
Due to the fact that that electricity does not function in a digital system, it functions in an analog system; meaning that there is electrical noise, and thus that you will never have precision. We were supposed to set this at 6 volts; however, we will never truly have 6 volts. Now accompany this by bad capacitors to filter the power, we will have some immense electrical noise.
The water is tap water; it is not pure distilled water.
Thus it is contaminated, and thus we cannot get a percent pure result using only water. The measurement of water added into the calorimeter was eyeballed to the best of our abilities, however, it is not exact, but an estimation. The thermometer does not record our results perfectly. We always round to get the best number possible, thus we forsake the decimal placements, which can have an impact on our precision. The specific heat capacity of a solid or liquid is defined as the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit mass of a substance through a unit change in temperature.
Our result from this experiment was somewhat close to the specific heat capacity for water, but still off the mark. Our experiment could have used a digital system to reduce the amount of electrical noise and make volts entering the water constant.
Another aspect of the experiment that was not perfect was the use of non-distilled water. Without the use of non-distilled water the total heat capacity could not possibly have been measured. In the world heat capacity is used on many different levels.
One thing that affects most people, in Canada especially is the efficiency of their furnace. Experts are able to find out the efficiency of our furnace thus finding the most efficient and cheapest way of warming our homes during the winter. Another application that heat capacity is commonly used is during the creation of certain types of pots and pans.
The pans must reach high levels of heat to cook the food while the handle must remain cool so that the cook will be able to hold it to put the food in plates.
To achieve this, the pots must be made with something with a low heat capacity, such as aluminum, while the handles must be made with something with a high heat capacity, such as plastic. Throughout this experiment the heat capacity of water was proven to be proportional. This was proved by graphing the change in temperature and change in energy and the graph showing a straight, diagonal line showing the proportionality of heat capacity. Article last reviewed: St. Skip to content. Othello Act 3 Analysis and Summary.
Most reacted comment. Hottest comment thread. Recent comment authors. It only takes seconds!Nailer I. The heat is calculated from the equation II. Purpose The purpose of this laboratory is to determine the experimental. Then, use the equations to see the relationship between change in energy and the amount of substance involved.
The variety of intensity of solar storm is like the difference between being hit with a tropical rainstorm and being devastated by a Category 5 hurricane. Oak Ridge National Laboratories estimated that only a solar storm just slightly stronger than the 13 March storm would have the capacity to produce a cascading blackout involving the entire Northeastern sector of the. Energy exchange can occur as work or as heat flow. When a reaction occurs under constant-pressure conditions, we call the heat portion of the energy exchanged the enthalpy change of the reaction.
Because the work can be hard to measure accurately, and because the work often represents only a minor fraction of the total energy change, we often focus only on the heat form of energy exchange. Measuring the enthalpy change of a chemical reaction gives information. This report aims initially to focus on the energy situation in the United Kingdom, and then present two forms of energy conventional energy in specific coal, and renewable energy which is wind energy, and will finally recommend the most suitable one after comparing and contrasting them considering both the cost and environment.
Many trials and experiments provide great vision into the structure and dynamics of water, but these often need the resources of a main research laboratory. Furthermore, some must come about under exciting conditions, such as those leading to superheated or super cooled water. One of the major water treatment processes is Desalination. Desalinations is the process of eliminating excess salt and other. Ibele April 17, Introduction: The first law of thermodynamics states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
Therefore when energy leaves one place it has to have another place to go to, it maintains a constant rate. Solid sorbent properties Solid sorbents are small porous particles which can selectively adsorb or complex with gaseous chemical species in this case, CO2thereby removing the species from a gas mixture. Molecules of CO2 may be held loosely by weak intermolecular forces termed? Generally, physiosorption occurs when the heat of adsorption is greater.
Desalting can be done in a number of ways, but the result is always the same: drinking water is produced from brackish somewhat salty water or seawater. Desalting technologies can be used for a number of applications, but the purpose of this report is to discuss the use of desalting to produce drinking water from saline water for domestic or municipal purposes. Throughout history, people have continually tried to treat salty water so that it could be used for drinking and agriculture.
Of all.Specific and Latent Heat Values. Density of Various Materials. Figure 1.
Two metal samples. Your lab group will need two pieces of either sample for this experiment. Figure 2. The metal samples are heated within a water bath shown here. The apparatus includes a stainless steel container and hot plate. A glass thermometer is used to monitor the temperature of the water bath. The rod and clamp are used to hold the thermometer in place. See Caution note below! Figure 3. The styrofoam calorimeter. Figure 4. A typical wooden calorimeter. The metal cup is made of aluminum.
Figure 5. The Vernier computer interface and stainless steel temperature probe. The probe is useful for accurately monitoring the temperature of the water contained in the calorimeter. Figure 6. A screen shot of the Thermometer program located in the Lab Programs folder on the computer desktop. See the Hints and Cautions section below to learn how to import your screen shots into your lab report. Figure 7. A triple-beam balance.
Figure 8. Wear the hot-hand protector when handling the hot stainless steel container. Ice Paper towels Small beaker Vernier caliper. Clemson University. All Rights Reserved. Photo's courtesy Corel Draw.The specific heat capacity of a substance is the heat capacity of a sample of the substance divided by the mass of the sample. Informally, it is the amount of energy that must be added, in the form of heatto one unit of mass of the substance in order to cause an increase of one unit in its temperature.
The specific heat often varies with temperature, and is different for each state of matter. The specific heat of a substance, especially a gas, may be significantly higher when it is allowed to expand as it is heated specific heat at constant pressure than when is heated in a closed vessel that prevents expansion specific heat at constant volume.
Specific heat relates to other intensive measures of heat capacity with other denominators. One of the first scientists to use the concept was Joseph Black18th-century medical doctor and professor of Medicine at Glasgow University. He measured the specific heat of many substances, using the term capacity for heat. These parameters are usually specified when giving the specific heat of a substance. Specific heat is an intensive property of a substance, an intrinsic characteristic that does not depend on the size or shape of the amount in consideration.
The qualifier "specific" in front of an extensive property often indicates an intensive property derived from it. Two particular choices are widely used:. Hence the heat capacity ratio of gases is typically between 1.
The specific heat can be defined and measured for gases, liquids, and solids of fairly general composition and molecular structure. These include gas mixtures, solutions and alloys, or heterogenous materials such as milk, sand, granite, and concrete, if considered at a sufficiently large scale.
The specific heat can be defined also for materials that change state or composition as the temperature and pressure change, as long as the changes are reversible and gradual. Thus, for example, the concepts are definable for a gas or liquid that dissociates as the temperature increases, as long as the products of the dissociation promptly and completely recombine when it drops. The specific heat is not meaningful if the substance undergoes irreversible chemical changes, or if there is a phase changesuch as melting or boiling, at a sharp temperature within the range of temperatures spanned by the measurement.
The specific heat of a substance is typically determined according to the definition; namely, by measuring the heat capacity of a sample of the substance, usually with a calorimeterand dividing by the sample's mass. Several techniques can be applied for estimating the heat capacity of a substance as for example Fast Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
The specific heat of gases can be measured at constant volume, by enclosing the sample in a rigid container. On the other hand, measuring the specific heat at constant volume can be prohibitively difficult for liquids and solids, since one often would need impractical pressures in order to prevent the expansion that would be caused by even small increases in temperature. Instead, the common practice is to measure the specific heat at constant pressure allowing the material to expand or contract as it wishesdetermine separately the coefficient of thermal expansion and the compressibility of the material, and compute the specific heat at constant volume from these data according to the laws of thermodynamics.
In chemistry, heat amounts were often measured in calories. Confusingly, two units with that name, denoted "cal" or "Cal", have been commonly used to measure amounts of heat:. While these units are still used in some contexts such as kilogram calorie in nutritiontheir use is now deprecated in technical and scientific fields. When heat is measured in these units, the unit of specific heat is usually.
In either unit, the specific heat of water is approximately 1. The temperature of a sample of a substance reflects the average kinetic energy of its constituent particles atoms or molecules relative to its center of mass.Mass of metal Table 1. Raw and computed data of specific heat of metals experiment In this experiment, the masses of the metal, the calorimeter, and water were first obtained by using the triple beam balance.
The mass of the water was computed by subtracting the mass of the empty calorimeter from the mass of the calorimeter and water. The standard of the specific heat of aluminum is 0. Given that the calorimeter used in the experiment is made out of aluminium, hence, it can be said that the calorimeter used has a specific heat of 0. After the empty calorimeter was filled with cold water, its initial temperature was measured before dropping the metal inside it. The initial temperature of the metal was measured as well by placing the thermometer inside the beaker while it was still on the hot plate, making sure that the thermometer hits the surface of the metal.
On the other hand, the final temperature of the system was obtained by measuring the temperature of the metal as soon as it was placed inside the calorimeter filled with cold water. It is now called temperature of the system because the temperature of the metal, water, and calorimeter is being measured wherein it is assumed that the three now have the same temperature as each other.
The change in the temperature of the metal was calculated by subtracting its initial temperature from the final temperature of the system. The change in temperature of the calorimeter and water, on other hand, was computed by subtracting its initial temperature from the final temperature of the system.
Hence, to compute for the heat given up by the metal the following formula is used:. This computation gives us the experimental specific heat of the metal, which is to be compared to the standard specific heat of the metal.
It is necessary to compare these two as it is critical in assessing whether there were drastic, minimal, or no errors that occurred or were involved in performing the experiment. The comparison of these two quantities is done by computing for the absolute error and the percentage error.
Specific heat capacity
The absolute error is computed by simply subtracting the experimental specific heat of the metal from the standard specific heat of the metal. The percentage error, on the other hand, is the absolute error divided by the standard value. Apparently, the metal block that our group got was made out of steel. Hence, we are to compare the value of our computed experimental specific heat to the standard specific heat of steel, which has the value 0.
Based on the computations done above, it can be said that our percentage error, having the value of 7. There may have been some systematic errors upon performing the experiment which include faulty calibration of measuring instruments such as the triple beam balance, as it is poorly maintained. This may have affected the measurements obtained by the researchers.
This may have made caused the researchers to make some mistakes in measuring the weight of the metal block, water, and calorimeter, which definitely affects all computations involved in obtaining the results.
If the errors made were not caused by defects in the instruments, it can be said that the errors may have been due to the faulty reading of instruments by the researchers. This includes parallax error, which is caused by the user reading an instrument at an angle, resulting in a reading which is either too high or too low compared to the correct value.
Other errors may include random errors. Common sources of random errors are problems in estimating a quantity that lies between the graduations of an instrument and the inability to read an instrument because the reading fluctuates during the measurement. The researchers encountered these problems in using the thermometer.Calorimetry: Crash Course Chemistry #19
In measuring the temperature of the metal while it was inside the beaker which was placed on the hot plate, the readings were fluctuating, which caused confusion in reading the measurement. Moreover, some of the temperature measurements were in between the graduations of the thermometer which caused us to estimate some values.Rotate to landscape screen format on a mobile phone or small tablet to use the Mathway widget, a free math problem solver that answers your questions with step-by-step explanations.
We welcome your feedback, comments and questions about this site or page. Please submit your feedback or enquiries via our Feedback page. Specific Heat Capacity Practical Steps to determine the specific heat capacity. Place a beaker on a balance and press zero. Now add the oil to the beaker and record the mass of the oil.
Read the starting temperature of the oil. Connect a joulemeter to the immersion heater. Time for thirty minutes. Read the number of joules of energy that passed into the immersion heater. Read the final temperature of the oil. Use the following formula to calculate the specific heat capacity. Results and Calculations: 0. Calculate the specific heat capacity of the oil.
Sources of inaccuracy 1. Thermal energy passing out of the beaker into the air - Use an insulator with a lower thermal conductivity. Not all thermal energy passing into the oil - Ensure that immersion heater is fully submerged.
Incorrect reading of thermometer - Use an electronic temperature probe. Thermal energy not being spread through the oil - Stir the oil. Show Step-by-Step Solutions. You can use the free Mathway calculator and problem solver below to practice Algebra or other math topics. Try the given examples, or type in your own problem and check your answer with the step-by-step explanations.Lesson for Energy must be transferred to or from a material to increase or decrease its temperature.
Here is how to calculate how much. Up until this point the link between internal energy and temperature has been qualitative, except for gases.
Determining Heat Capacity of Water Lab Answers
In order to extend the discussion to solids and liquids we need to get more quantitative in two ways. One is to discuss how much the temperature of a body changes when its internal energy in increased by a certain amount. The other is to ask what happens when a substance changes phase from a solid to a liquid or liquid to a gas.
Start by introducing the equation for specific heat capacity c SHC and defining the terms. The word specific is an old fashioned way of saying per unit mass. Work through a simple calculation. Understanding this equation will help solidify ideas about temperature and energy and how they differ. A possible analogy was supplied by Richard Feynman. He suggested thinking of energy as being like water, and temperature as wetness.
A towel can have different amounts of fluffiness, so take more or less water to make it wet. When we dry ourselves, we dry until the towel is as wet as we are same temperature. The anomalously large SHC of water should also be discussed as it is particularly important for the development and maintenance of life on Earth. Some use specific thermal capacityothers favour specific heating capacity to emphasise the fact that heat is not an entity but a short hand name for a process heating as oppose to working.
Perhaps the most common is specific heat capacity. Solids, liquids and gases are three of the different phases of matter superfluids and plasmas are two others. NB Here, by a plasma, we mean an ionised gas, not a biological fluid.
Thus melting, boiling etc are changes of phase. Each phase can exist in a variety of states depending upon e. There are a number of points to note here:. Several different methods of determining the SHC of liquids and solids are given in the links below. Choose those best suited to your pupils and available equipment. Episode Measuring the specific heat capacity of a metal Word, 33 KB. Episode The specific heat capacity of water and aluminium Word, 37 KB. It is useful to compare electrical methods of measuring the specific heat capacity of a solid and liquid including the continuous flow calorimeter for a liquid.